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DR. TERANCE SASAKI, MD NORMAN J CLEMENT RPH., DDS, NORMAN L. CLEMENT PHARM-TECH, MALACHI F. MACKANDAL PHARMD, BELINDA BROWN-PARKER, IN THE SPIRIT OF JOSEPH SOLVO ESQ., INC.T. SPIRIT OF REV. IN THE SPIRIT OF WALTER R. CLEMENT BS., MS, MBA. HARVEY JENKINS MD, PH.D., C.T. VIVIAN, JELANI ZIMBABWE CLEMENT, BS., MBA., IN THE SPIRIT OF THE HON. PATRICE LUMUMBA, IN THE SPIRIT OF ERLIN CLEMENT SR., WALTER F. WRENN III., MD., JULIE KILLINGWORTH, LESLY POMPY MD., CHRISTOPHER RUSSO, MD., NANCY SEEFELDT, WILLIE GUINYARD BS., JOSEPH WEBSTER MD., MBA, BEVERLY C. PRINCE MD., FACS., NEIL ARNAND, MD., RICHARD KAUL, MD., LEROY BAYLOR, JAY K. JOSHI MD., MBA, ADRIENNE EDMUNDSON, ESTER HYATT PH.D., WALTER L. SMITH BS., IN THE SPIRIT OF BRAHM FISHER ESQ., MICHELE ALEXANDER MD., CUDJOE WILDING BS, MARTIN NJOKU, BS., RPH., IN THE SPIRIT OF DEBRA LYNN SHEPHERD, BERES E. MUSCHETT, STRATEGIC ADVISORS
FROM WESTERN CAPE, WINE COUNTRY SOUTH AFRICA, KNOWLEDGE OF SELF BRINGS WISDOM TO THE STRUGGLES OF THE PEOPLES OF SOUTH AFRICA AND THOSE IN ST. AUSTINE ARE ONE IN THE SAME
norman j clement rph., dds:
“THROUGH RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE OF SELF DOES ONE CONTROLS THEIR DESTINY FROM THE ONSLAUGHT OF IGNORANCE“
In South Africa, as a Black American, one is frequently reminded it was those Black Americans (Randal Robinson), those in the US Congress (Conyers, Dellums, Stokes), those Cubans who spearheaded the boycott and armed struggle against the Apartheid government, which broke its back. Thus these histories are the same.
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THE IMPORTANCE OF MISEDUCATION AND MAINTAINING IGNORANCE
The miseducation of a targeted population plays an essential component in maintaining dominance. Moreover, despite the fact “we have overcome” the draconian colonialism legacy of “Jim Crow” and Apartheid in both the United States and South Africa, we continue to observe the residual effects of these practices on children struggling academically.
DE-SANTIS RETURNS TO BANTU EDUCATION
ARE IDENTICAL TO
HENDRIK FRENSCH VERWOERD PRIME MINISTER UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
Among the laws drawn and enacted during Hendrik Verwoerd’s time as the Minister for Native Affairs were the Population Registration Act and the Group Areas Act in 1950, the Pass Laws Act of 1952, and the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953.
Verwoerd wrote the Bantu Education Act, which was to have a deleterious effect on the ability of black South Africans to be educated as Verwoerd himself noted:
“The Bantu Education Act’s purpose was to ensure that blacks would have only enough education to work as unskilled laborers.”
THE BANTU EDUCATION ACT
The Bantu Education Act ensured that black South Africans had only the barest minimum of education, thus entrenching the role of blacks in the apartheid economy as a cheap source of unskilled labor. In June 1954, Verwoerd, in a speech, stated:
“The Bantu must be guided to serve his own community in all respects. There is no place for him in the European community above the level of certain forms of labor. Within his own community, however, all doors are open.”
THE HISTORY OF FLORIDA IS SPANISH BLACK HISTORY
From Saint Augustine tours “the History of Saint Augustine:
“The oldest continuously occupied settlement of European and African-American origin in the United States, St. Augustine underwent numerous transformations over the centuries. During their initial reign, the Spanish, in addition to claiming the land for strategic military purposes, sought to import Catholicism to this distant land by enlisting hundreds of Franciscan priests to start missions among the indigenous people that stretched as far west as Pensacola and north to the Carolinas.
“THROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF HISTORY AND SELF DO WE CONTROL OUR DESTINY”
For the duration that the Spanish attempted to establish their foothold on St. Augustine, conflict with Great Britain came early and often. Soon after the advent of the Anglo-Spanish War in 1586, a large British fleet led by privateer Sir Francis Drake overwhelmed the Spanish forces in St. Augustine, and the settlement was burned to the ground.
In the early 1600s, expeditions were sent from St. Augustine to attack the British colony at Jamestown, Virginia. Displaced Indians from the north attacked the missionaries in St. Augustine during the second half of the 17th century. And in 1668, British buccaneers sacked St. Augustine again, which prompted the building of a permanent masonry fort. Today, is one of St. Augustine’s most iconic landmarks – the Castillo de San Marcos.
After more years of strife that saw St. Augustine razed again by the British, the Spanish finally ceded Florida in 1763 to their enemy for a brief 20-year period before the Spanish eventually returned to reclaim the land. But not for long.”
From the archives of the Fort Moses Museum, we are taught:
“In 1724, Francisco Menendez escaped from a plantation in the colony of South Carolina and, with a small group of men, headed south to Florida, a Spanish colony, to the town of St. Augustine. There he was granted his freedom. He soon became a member of the Black militia and helped defend the area from English invaders. In 1738, Menendez helped find America’s first legally sanctioned free Black community. It was called Fort Mose and lay just north of St. Augustine.”
THE SOUTHERN UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
Thirty-eight households of men, women, and children lived together at Fort Mose, creating a frontier community that drew on various African backgrounds and blended them with the local Spanish, Native American, and English peoples and cultures. Fort Mose became a southern destination for travelers of the Underground Railroad many years before the birth of its legendary “conductor,” Harriet Tubman.”
ST. MONICA, MOTHER OF ST. AUGUSTINE
From the Fort Moses Museum archives, we learn:
“Fort Mose Historic State Park is the site of the first legally sanctioned free African settlement in what is now the United States. In 1738, the Spanish governor of Florida chartered the settlement of Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, or Fort Mose for short, as a settlement for those fleeing slavery from the English colonies in the Carolinas.
Over the next 25 years, Fort Mose and Spanish St. Augustine became a sanctuary for Africans seeking liberation from the tyranny of English slavery amidst a large-scale power struggle between European powers in the New World. The only stipulation for gaining their freedom was that they had to declare their allegiance to the king of Spain and become members of the Catholic Church.
It is estimated that 100 Africans made Fort Mose their new home. What is particularly interesting is that the residents created a new cultural community, pulling from Native American, Spanish, and English cultural customs.
Fort Mose has been recognized for its national significance in the history of the United States. In 1994, the site was designated a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.”
BATTLE OF FORT MOSES
From the Fort Moses Museum archives, we learn: in 1740
“The fort, to the Spanish, served as both a colony of freedmen and as Spanish Florida‘s front-line of defense against possible incursions from the Southern colonies. Word of the free black settlement reached the Province of South Carolina; it is believed to have helped inspire the Stono Rebellion in September 1739. During the slave revolt, several dozen blacks headed for Spanish Florida and were recruited into the colonial militia. 
At the War of Jenkins’ Ear outbreak in 1739, General James Oglethorpe, governor of Georgia, encouraged by some successful raids made by the British and their Indian allies in the frontier, decided to raise a significant expedition to capture St. Augustine, the capital of Spanish Florida. As part of the campaign, he realized his forces had to capture and hold Fort Mose.”
FLORIDA’S HISTORY IS AFRICAN-HISPANIC CUBAN HISTORY
Oglethorpe launched his campaign. Regular troops from South Carolina and Georgia, militia volunteers, about 600 allied Indian Creek and Uchise allies, and about 800 blacks as auxiliaries made up the expedition, which was supported at sea by seven ships of the Royal Navy.
Montiano, who had 600 regulars, including reinforcements, recently arrived from Cuba and began entrenching his position. He attempted to unsuccessfully attack the British lines on several occasions by taking them by surprise.”
1964 CIVIL RIGHTS BILL STARTS IN FLORIDA, AND ROBERT B HAYLING DDS
From our history of Florida and our tour guide Bernadetta Reeves, we learn:
” St. Augustine finds itself on all kinds of complimentary travel lists and seems every year to grow in stature as a top tourist destination. The area has been lauded for its food, beaches, Christmas lights, etc. It’s often mentioned as a great place for history — and for a good reason with the Castillo de San Marcos, Fountain of Youth, Mission Nombre de Dios, and many other attractions of historical significance.
Yet when it comes to black history, including the civil rights movement, St. Augustine falls off the search engines. It’s not that the city lacks significance. The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. marched here in 1964 in an effort to push for the passage of the Civil Rights Act. There was the famous sit-in at Woolworth’s and the confrontations on the beach and at the pool of the Monson Motor Lodge.”
STORY OF ROBERT B. HAYLING DDS
PHOTO TAKE BY AMB ANDREW YOUNG 2015
He and his three siblings all attended Florida A&M, in addition to receiving graduate education. In 1951, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the US Air Force, serving for four years, before moving to Nashville, Tennessee, to study dentistry.
PHOTO TAKE BY AMB ANDREW YOUNG 2015 DR HAYLING PRAYING OVER GRAVE OF KLANSMAN WOLF
He received a Doctor of Dental Surgery degree from Meharry Medical College School of Dentistry in 1960, where he first became involved in civil rights by participating in marches and lunch counter sit-ins.
PHOTO TAKE BY AMB ANDREW YOUNG 2015 DR HAYLING PRAYING OVER THE GRAVE OF KLANSMAN WOLF
His early and steadfast leadership in the cause of civil rights in St. Augustine has been recognized in many ways. He was a 2012 Recipient of the Florida A&M University Distinguished Alumni Award, received a Doctor of Humane Letters from Florida Memorial University, and that school’s Nathan W. Collier Meritorious Service Award “recognizing his courage, vision, fortitude, and service on behalf of mankind;” and was honored at the Florida Dental Association’s convention in 2015.
Hayling has been written about in many civil rights history books: by Taylor Branch, David Colburn, Deric Gilliard, Andrew Young, Ralph Abernathy, Dan Warren, and others. Before his death, he was the outstanding surviving grassroots leader of the civil rights movement of the 1960s, and he is frequently hailed as “the father of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.” He died on December 20, 2015.
After his death, a memorial tribute was held in the rotunda of the state capitol building. The largest park in St. Augustine was named in his honor: Dr. Robert B. Hayling Freedom Park.
Best tour for black history and culture
“JEWISH RABBIS CAME FROM ACROSS THE COUNTRY TO SUPPORT THE PROTEST”
Review of St. Augustine Black Heritage Tours
Reviewed February 22, 2017, via mobile
“Bernadette Reeves was our tour guide. She was awesome! The tour started on time, and the weather was nice for a Saturday afternoon. She had a mic, so we all could hear well.
We walked thru downtown and learned so much about civil rights and the 1960s during that time. I won’t give too much away cause u should try it.
Ms. B’s tours are done daily, and the cost is $15 for adults and children 12yrs old and younger are $8, and 6yrs and under are free.
There were about 30 of us, and none were disappointed. My kids learned so much, and I was able to appreciate my culture, although I look at Saint Augustine the town a little differently now. To be surprised, the tour was mixed, and just as many whites as blacks appreciated learning about black history.
Keep up the good work!”
Date of experience: February 2017
St. Augustine is also the birthplace of the first black college graduate, who later in life became the first black physician in Jacksonville and the second black physician in the state of Florida. Alexander Darnes was born in 1824 in St. Augustine and died in Jacksonville in 1894. A life-size statue of Dr. Darnes sits in the garden of Kirby Smith’s House, 12 Aviles St., where he lived as a child.
St. Augustine was under Union control during the Civil War and, as a result, was one of the few places where Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation actually freed slaves.
After the Civil War, many blacks settled in St. Augustine in what is now known as Lincolnville. At the time, the area was called “Little Africa.” In the late 1880s, the neighborhood was renamed Lincolnville in honor of Abraham Lincoln.
VISIT FORT MOSES, ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA, MUSEUM MAINTAIN BY THE STATE OF FLORIDA
Like Governor Ron Desantis of Florida in the United States, we have experienced actions nearly identical to Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd’s thinking, such as former Governor Rick Snyder in the State of Michigan, who directed the forced takeover of the Detroit Public Schools.
Snyder’s action resulted in one of the greatest tragedies in which he deliberately and knowingly poisoned the water system in Flint, Michigan. Snyder’s actions were both methodical and inhumane and lead to the deaths and destruction of an entire city of predominantly people of color. Snyder has repeatedly said, “my action was for the good of the people, and we were saving money.”
FOR NOW, YOU ARE WITHIN
PRESERVING HISTORY AROUND THE WORLD
DISTRICT SIX MUSEUM CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA
FORT MOSES MUSEUM/CIVIL RIGHTS ST AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
ROBBEN ISLAND PRISON MUSEUM, WESTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA
THE PHARMACISTS COLOMBO KATANGE, BIA STATE BRAZIL
FESTIVA DE BOA MORTE, CACHOEIRA BRAZILE CELEBRATION TO THE END OF SLAVERY